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Sex Education in Nigeria: The Great Taboo

As a young secondary school student, I benefitted a lot from subjects like social studies, and physical and health education, which ensured that I was aware of common issues in Nigeria, such as human trafficking, female genital mutilation and the abuse of widows. I was grateful for such knowledge, but it was only when I started studying abroad that I realised, “What about sex?”. I had learnt about HIV and AIDS in a rigid, scientific manner as a mandatory part of the curriculum; however, awareness of sexual anatomy and appropriate sexual behaviour - a key part of sexual education - was neglected.


The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention classes HIV as an epidemic in Nigeria. According to their 2015 figures, the disease maintains a 3.1% prevalence among adults (aged 15-49), with AIDS-related deaths estimated at 180,000. Based on these figures, it is clear that the youth are amongst the most affected by the virus nationwide. Although there are many factors that play a role in this figure, one which continues to contribute to this growing number is the absence of adolescent sex education as part of the school curriculum.

The cultural stigma

Concern regarding sex education is not a new development in Nigeria. A 2003 survey in Ile-Ife, a city in Southwestern Nigeria, showed that 15.4% of respondents opposed to its introduction in secondary schools. Many residents who held this view believed that introducing sex education to curriculums “might lead to experimentation and that it should be the responsibility of the parents at home.” Similar attitudes were shown in a separate study carried out in Enugu, the capital of Enugu state in Southeastern Nigeria. A recent campaign by the National Association of Proprietors of Private Public Schools also echoes this outlook, with its immediate past president, Mrs Olubukola Dosunmu, remarking that “It is a collective responsibility to ensure we work against comprehensive sexual education in schools.”

From the above-shared apprehension towards sex education shown by citizens across the country, one can conclude that the opposition stems from the belief that teaching young people about sex will motivate them to engage in the activity. It draws on the fears of numerous parents and educators alike that it promotes a promiscuous lifestyle, allows for the abandonment of traditional morals and sets adolescents up for possible physical and emotional harm.

However, this is not necessarily the case. As best put by an article in the African Journal of Social Sciences on this issue - “Sexuality education simply means the presentation of every aspect of the sexuality of an individual exactly as it is, and equipping the individual with all options there are to enhance a better understanding of sexuality in its holistic manner. This ensures a proper understanding of an individual’s identity as well as his total view of sexuality as it concerns religious beliefs, ethics, rules and regulations.”

The methods

An underage wife carrying her child (Source: Ventures Africa)

Sex education relates to a wide variety of topics, for example, safe sex, abstinence, the anatomy, emotional relationships and responsibilities of partners. It is important to realise that teaching sex education in schools does not necessarily mean adopting select methods occasionally used when the subject taught in Western countries, which are publicised as somewhat unconventional. An example of this is the methods used in “The Sex Education Show” and its screening in classes by teachers as an aid when teaching the subject. Direct, honest and interactive; the show has brought a new way of teaching young people about sex. However, this does not mean that there will suddenly be an arrival of live nude models in sex education classes up and down Nigeria if the subject is allowed to be taught in schools. It is important to realise that such methods are appropriately managed by teachers and have been used with parental consent. They are simply one approach to take on this issue.